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Pelvis

This section is title Pelvis but will refer to both the pelvis and the lumbar part of the spine.

Movements

Lumbar Flexion - Extension

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Lumbar flexion is the “bending” or moving the body forward towards the legs. This movement is done buy the lumbar part of the spine and not at the hip joint.
Range of motion: 60°.


Lumbar extension will be taking the body backwards in the opposite direction than the lumbar flexion.
Range of motion: 25°.


Lumbar Lateral Flexion - Extension

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Lumbar lateral flexion will be taking the body sideways.
Lumbar lateral extension is the opposite movement, bringing the body back in neutral position.
Range of motion: 25°.

Lumbar Rotation

Lumbar rotation refers to the rotary movement of the spine on the transverse plane. Each vertebra is capable of moving in three directions (back and forth, lateral flexion, and rotation), and even though the movement at each joint is small, the spine as a single structure has great flexibility and range of motion.
Range of motion: 15°   It is difficult to separate from the thoracic rotation (RoM of 30°) which together will produce a rotation of around 45° of the shoulder relative to the pelvis.


Muscles

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Lumbar flexion: Rectus Abdominis, Internal Obliques, External Obliques, Psoas Major.
Lumbar extension:  Lingissimus, Iliocostalis, Spinalis, Multifidus Quadratus Lumborum, Interspinalis Lumborum, Intertransvesarii
Lumbar lateral flexion:  Quadratus Lumborum, Iliocostalis, Longissimus, Multifidus, Intertransversarii.
Lumbar rotation:  Internal Obliques, External Obliques, Iliocostalis, Multifidus, Rotatores.

Evaluating movement dysfunction

Mobility tests: Thorax Thoracic and Lumbar spine mobility are considered together here.
Strength tests: Thorax  Thoracic and Lumbar spine strength are considered together here.
Posture evaluation: Look for pelvis and lumber spine misalignment.
FMS: Hurdle Step, Look for compensation for hip mobility as pelvis tilt.  Could also indicate a lack of pelvis stability.
       Inline Lunge: as for the Hurdle Step.
       Trunk Stability, trunk should remain stable and straight.
       Rotary Stability: spine should be mobile enough to avoid influencing balance.

Pelvis Tilt

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Posture evaluation:  It is usually first noticed because of the change of the lumbar spine shape.  Most of the time it is accompanied by a lack of alignment of the knee and/or shoulder.
Pelvic tilt is the result of imbalance at the lumbar spine area but also at the hip joint.  It can be the result of a bad posture or apprear at certain point of T&F movements, specially when running.  Forward pelvis tilt is the result of either or both the hip flexors and the lumbar extensors been to short (the opposite movement muscles been too long).  Backward pelvis tilt is the result of either or both the hip extensors and the lumbar flexors been to short (the opposite movement muscles been too long). The pelvis and the lumbar spince gain to remain stable in most T&F event in order to improve the performance of the hip muscles and prevent overuse injuries.
Corrective measures    Strength: All pelvis strength exercises.