Foot Movement

Active movements of the foot is limited to the movements associated with the toes. The arches of the foot allow the foot to efficiently support the weight of the body while simultaneously allowing flexibility for movement and balance. The space created underneath the arch allows for the passage of muscles, tendons, and ligaments which act as springs that provide shock absorption and store energy to be returned during movement. The arches are formed by the position and shape of the foot bones, and strengthened by tendons and ligaments. There are two distinct longitudinal arches in the foot that run from front to back: the medial (inside) arch and the lateral (outside) arch.


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Medial Arch

Its weakest part (i.e., the part most liable to yield from overpressure) is the joint between the talus and navicular, but this portion is braced by the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, a.k.a. spring ligament, which is elastic and is thus able to quickly restore the arch to its original condition when the disturbing force is removed. The ligament is strengthened medially by blending with the deltoid ligament of the ankle joint, and is supported inferiorly by the tendon of the Tibialis posterior, which is spread out in a fanshaped insertion and prevents undue tension of the ligament or such an amount of stretching as would permanently elongate it.  The arch is further supported by the plantar aponeurosis, by the small muscles in the sole of the foot, by the tendons of the Tibialis anterior and posterior and Peronæus longus, and by the ligaments of all the articulations involved.

Lateral Arch

The lateral arch is composed of the calcaneus, the cuboid, and the fourth and fifth metatarsals.  Two notable features of this arch are its solidity and its slight elevation. Two strong ligaments, the long plantar and the plantar calcaneocuboid, together with the Extensor tendons and the short muscles of the little toe, preserve its integrity.

Evaluating movement dysfunction

Posture evaluation

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Look for low arch (flat foot).  Is often associated with foot inversion (pronation). Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the footcollapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.

Corrective measures


Towel Pull,    Foot Arch.