Dorsiflexion - Plantarflexion

Dorsiflexion is backward flexion (bending), of the foot. This can also be described as bending in the direction of the dorsum. (dorsum = upper surface = "superior" surface, i.e. the surface of the foot that includes the toe nails or finger nails). 
   Range of motion: 20° (10° for 2-joints)

Plantarflexion is the opposite movement, the movement of the foot in which the foot flex downward toward the sole.
   Range of motion: -50°.

Eversion and Inversion

Inversion and eversion refer to movements that tilt the sole of the foot away from (eversion) or towards (inversion) the midline of the body.
  Range of motion:  Inversion 20-30°, eversion 5-15°.



Gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, fibularis brevis and longus, flexorhallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus and plantaris. These muscles form the calf and the posterior compartment of the leg.


Tibialis anterior, extensor hallicus longus, extensor digitorum longus, and peroneus teritus. These muscles are part of the anterior compartment of the leg (shin).


Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis.


Tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior.

Evaluating movement dysfunction

    Mobility tests: Ankle

    Strength tests:Ankle

    Posture evaluation: Look for foot inversion (pronation).

    FMS: Deep Squat, ankle inversion or lack of stability contribute to low score.

               Inline Lunge: ankle inversion or the lack of stability might cause movement or misalignment of the front knee during the execution.

Eversion- Inversion


Too much eversion causes a de-alignment of the heel relative to the knee-ankle line known as pronation. This is easily visible during a posture assessment or during training. It is likely the result of having long and week eversor muscles and short and strong inversor muscles. It will likely influence the alignment of one or more joint above. Might be caused or made worst if the arc of the foot is weak (flat foot). Specific evaluation of the mobility of the ankle should be conducted.

Corrective measures: Strength: Ankle Eversion with Elastic Band       Ankle Inversion with Elastic Band

Weak ankle

The stability of the eversion-inversion movements is challenged in several T&F events; those that include running in a curve (ex.: sprints, indoor track running, and high jump). Those events would require sufficient mobility and good strength of the eversion-inversion movements.

Corrective measures:Strength: Ankle Eversion with Elastic Band       Ankle Inversion with Elastic Band

Shin splints

Shin splints are usually caused by repeated trauma to the connective tissue surrounding the tibia.  They are a common injury affecting athletes who engage in running sports or other forms of physical activity, including running and jumping. They are characterized by general pain in the lower region of the leg between the knee and the ankle. Shin splints injuries are specifically located in the middle to lower thirds of the anterior or lateral part of the tibia, which is the larger of two bones comprising the lower leg. While the exact cause is unknown, shin splints can be attributed to the overloading of the lower leg due to biomechanical irregularities resulting in an increase in stress exerted on the tibia possibly caused by, excessive pronation at subtalar joint, excessively tight calf muscles (which can cause excessive pronation), engaging the medial shin muscle in excessive amounts of eccentric muscle activity. Preparing the athletes with ankle strength and mobility will help prevent it.  (Find out more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shin_splints)

Corrective measures:Strength: Ankle Eversion with Elastic Band       Ankle Inversion with Elastic Band


The lack of mobility in the plantar- dorsiflexion pair of movement is rarely a problem in T&F. However, some athlete can have dysfunction at that level. On the other hand, the strength of the ankle flexion and extension movements is challenged in practically all T&F event.

Shin splints:See Eversion-Inversion above.
Corrective measures
       Strength:Heel Raise;   Ankle Dorsiflexion
       Mobility:Ankle dorsiflexion, Calf stretch.

Training and Games

Standing on one leg:  Will force the adoption of a better position and increase strength and mobility.  The athlete could be asked to focus on getting a better ankle position during the exercise if pronation is a problem.
Walk on beam:  Increase balance, and ankle stability.
Image result for hopscotch Hopscotch and variations:    Increase ankle strength and stability.